Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh – Famous Historical Place In Amritsar

Jallianwala Bagh is a historic garden and memorial of national importance close to the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is preserved in the memory of those wounded and killed in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that took place on the site on the festival of Baisakhi, 13 April 1919. The 7-acre site houses a museum, gallery and several memorial structures. It is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust, and was renovated between 2019 and 2021. Visit during One Day Amritsar Sightseeing Trip by Private Cab



History of Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh derives its name from the Pandit Jalla, who owned the land in the 18th century. It was once a garden house and private property of Bhai Himmat Singh’s family. However, when that inhumane incident took place, in 1919, Jallianwala Bagh was nothing but a mere piece of land

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was one of the most tragic events in the history of India’s freedom struggle. It occurred on 13 April 1919, when thousands of people gathered at the garden to celebrate Baisakhi, a harvest festival and a religious occasion for Sikhs. They were also protesting against the oppressive Rowlatt Act, which gave the British authorities the power to arrest and detain anyone without trial

The British General Reginald Dyer, who was in charge of maintaining law and order in Amritsar, decided to teach the Indians a lesson by firing indiscriminately at the unarmed crowd. He blocked the only exit of the garden with his troops and ordered them to shoot until they ran out of ammunition. According to official records, 379 people were killed and more than 1,200 were injured in the massacre. However, unofficial estimates put the death toll much higher, at around 1,000

The massacre sparked widespread outrage and condemnation across India and the world. It also inspired many Indians to join the freedom movement and fight against British colonialism. The massacre was later investigated by a commission headed by Lord Hunter, which found Dyer guilty of a “grave error”. However, he was not punished by the British government and was instead hailed as a hero by some sections of the British public. He retired from the army in 1920 and died in 1927

Features of Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh today is a site which honours those martyrs who sacrificed their lives for India’s independence. It has several features that commemorate the incident and its aftermath. Some of these are:

  • The Martyrs’ Well: This is a well where many people jumped to escape the bullets of the British soldiers. It is said that about 120 bodies were recovered from the well after the massacre. The well is now covered with a mesh and has a plaque that reads “Shaheedan Wala Khuh” (The Well of Martyrs).
  • The Bullet Marks: The walls of the garden still bear the marks of hundreds of bullets that were fired by Dyer’s troops. These marks are preserved as a reminder of the brutality and cruelty of the massacre.
  • The Flame of Liberty: This is an eternal flame that burns at the entrance of the garden. It was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to India in 1997. It symbolizes the spirit and courage of those who fought for India’s freedom.
  • The Memorial Plaque: This is a marble plaque that lists the names of 492 people who were identified as victims of the massacre. It was installed by the Indian National Congress in 1920.
  • The Martyrs’ Gallery: This is a museum that displays photographs, paintings, documents, and artifacts related to the massacre and its aftermath. It also has audio-visual exhibits that narrate the history and significance of Jallianwala Bagh.
  • The Amar Jyoti: This is a flame that glows 24×7 near the memorial plaque. It represents the immortal souls of those who died in the massacre.
  • The Memorial Monument: This is a red tower-like structure that stands in the middle of the garden. It was designed by American architect Benjamin Polk and inaugurated by President Rajendra Prasad in 1961. It depicts four men holding up an urn containing ashes of those who died in the massacre.

Significance of Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh is not only a place of historical importance but also a symbol of India’s struggle for freedom and democracy. It represents:

  • Resistance: Jallianwala Bagh shows how Indians resisted British oppression and injustice with courage and determination. It also shows how the massacre galvanized the Indian masses to join the freedom movement and challenge the British rule.
  • Remembrance: Jallianwala Bagh serves as a memorial to those who laid down their lives for India’s independence. It also serves as a reminder of the sacrifices and sufferings of the Indian people under colonialism.
  • Reconciliation: Jallianwala Bagh also reflects the spirit of reconciliation and forgiveness between India and Britain. It shows how both countries have moved on from their bitter past and established a friendly and cooperative relationship.

Things to Do/ Must See in Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh is a place of immense historical and emotional value, where visitors can learn about the massacre and its impact on India’s freedom struggle. Some of the things to do or must see at Jallianwala Bagh are:

  • Pay tribute to the martyrs: Visitors can pay their respects to those who died in the massacre by offering flowers, candles, or prayers at the memorial plaque, the well, or the monument. They can also observe a minute of silence in their memory.
  • Visit the museum: Visitors can explore the museum and see the exhibits that depict the history and significance of Jallianwala Bagh. They can also watch the documentary film that shows the eyewitness accounts of the survivors of the massacre.
  • Watch the light and sound show: Visitors can watch the light and sound show that takes place every evening at 7 pm. The show recreates the events of 13 April 1919 with lights, sounds, and narration. The show lasts for about an hour and is available in Hindi, English, and Punjabi languages.
  • Enjoy the garden: Visitors can also enjoy the beauty and serenity of the garden, which has been landscaped with lawns, flowers, trees, and fountains. They can also see the sculpted bushes that resemble armed soldiers.

FAQs

Q: What is Jallianwala Bagh?

A: Jallianwala Bagh is a historic garden and memorial of national importance in Amritsar, India. It is preserved in the memory of those wounded and killed in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that occurred on the site on April 13, 1919

Q: When and why did the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre happen?

A: The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre happened on April 13, 1919, when thousands of people gathered at the garden to celebrate Baisakhi, a harvest festival and a religious occasion for Sikhs. They were also protesting against the oppressive Rowlatt Act, which gave the British authorities the power to arrest and detain anyone without trial. The British General Reginald Dyer, who was in charge of maintaining law and order in Amritsar, decided to teach the Indians a lesson by firing indiscriminately at the unarmed crowd. He blocked the only exit of the garden with his troops and ordered them to shoot until they ran out of ammunition

Q: How many people died in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?

A: According to official records, 379 people were killed and more than 1,200 were injured in the massacre. However, unofficial estimates put the death toll much higher, at around 1,000

Q: What was the impact of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?

A: The massacre sparked widespread outrage and condemnation across India and the world. It also inspired many Indians to join the freedom movement and fight against British colonialism. The massacre was later investigated by a commission headed by Lord Hunter, which found Dyer guilty of a “grave error”. However, he was not punished by the British government and was instead hailed as a hero by some sections of the British public. He retired from the army in 1920 and died in 1927

Conclusion

Jallianwala Bagh is a place of historical and emotional value, where visitors can learn about the massacre and its impact on India’s freedom struggle. It has several features that commemorate the incident and its aftermath, such as the Martyrs’ Well, the Bullet Marks, the Flame of Liberty, the Memorial Plaque, the Martyrs’ Gallery, the Amar Jyoti, and the Memorial Monument. It also reflects the spirit of resistance, remembrance, and reconciliation between India and Britain. It is a place where one can feel the pain and pride of those who fought for India’s independence.

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